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5:2 Time-resolved fluorescence: biological applications

In this section, we will discuss several biological applications of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The goal is to give worked examples of natural processes, where this technique provides new insights. To achieve those goals, we will briefly introduce the investigated systems, discuss the selected data and their biophysical interpretations. The examples include energy transfer in the photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes of bacteria, proton transfer reaction in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of jellyfish Aequoria victoria and deactivation of excited state in bacterial light-driven proton pump, bacteriorhodopsin.